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Here is a selection of the evidence and research that we used to create Tūturu.

Our theory of change

We developed our theory of change together with the New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

Theory of Change

Tūturu's independent evaluation 

The New Zealand Council for Educational Research evaluated Tūturu as it was being developed. This provided valuable insights to help us adjust how Tūturu was developing. The final evaluation report is below.

Tūturu evaluation report [PDF, 919KB]


Adams, P. J. (2008). Fragmented intimacy: Addiction in a social world. New York: Springer.

Adolescent Health Research Group. (2013). The health and wellbeing of New Zealand secondary school students in 2012: Youth' 12 prevalence tables. Auckland: Adolescent Health Research Group.

Aiken, A., Lam, T., Gilmore, W., Burns, L., Chikritzhs, T., Lenton, S., et al. (2018). Youth perceptions of alcohol advertisiung: Are current advertising regulations working? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 234-239.

Aos, S., Lee, S., Drake, E., Pennucci, A., Klima, T., Miller, M., et al. (2011). Return on investment: Evidence-based options to improve statewide outcomes. Olympia, Washington: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

Arria, A. M., Caldeira, K. M., Bugbee, B. A., Vincent, K. B., & O'Grady, K. E. (Drug Alcohol Depend). 2017. Trajectories of energy drink consumption and subsequent drug use during young adulthood, 424-432.

Auckland Council. (2016). Knowing someone cares. Auckland: Auckland Council.

Auckland Council. (2018). Young people and synthetic cannabinoid drugs: A snapshot of young Aucklander's thoughts and experiences around synthetic cannabinoid drugs. Auckland: Auckland Council.

Austin, E. W., & Pinkelton, B. E. (2016). The viability of media literacy in reducing the influence of misleading media messages on young people's decision-making concerning alcohol, tobacco, and other substances. Cutt Addict Rep, 175-181.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2017). National Drug Household Survey 2016: Detailed findings. Drug statistics series no. 31. Car. No. PHE 214. Canberra: AIHW.

Bagshaw, S. (2001). Consent and confidentiality in adolescent health. New Ethicals Journal, 21-25.

Bailey, K., Baker, A., Webster, R., & Lewin, T. (2004). Pilot randomised controlled trial of a brief alcohol intervention group for adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Review, 157-166.

Birks, B. (2015, January). Secondary school students and alcohol - Multiple levels of intervention can make a difference. AlcoholNZ, pp. 13-19.

Blood, P., & Thorsborne, M. (2006). Overcoming resistance to whole-school uptake of restorative practices. Paper presented at the International Institute of Restorative Practices "The next step: Developing restorative communities, Part 2". Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA.

Blum, R. (1998). Healthy youth development as a model for youth health promotion: A review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 368-375.

Bond, L., Patton, G., Glover, S., Carlin, J. B., Butler, H., Thomas, L., et al. (2004). The gatehouse project: Can a multilevel school invervention affect emotional wellbeing and health risk behaviours? J EPidemiol Community Health, 997-1003.

Boyd, S., & Barwick, H. (2011). Wellbeing at school: Building a safe and caring school climate that deters bullying. Wellington: Crown Copyright.

Boyd, S., & Felgate, R. (2015). A "positive culture of support": Final report from the evaluation of PB4L school-wide. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

Boyd, S., & Hipkins, R. (2015). Review and maintenance programme (RAMP) health and physical education. Themes in the research literature. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

Brainwave Trust. (2012). The adolescent brain and alcohol. Brainwave Trust.

Bruce, J., Clelland, T., Macfarlane, S., Mikaere-Wallis, N., Ruddenklau, K., Taula, J., et al. (2014). Positive youth development through education: Addressing issues of (dis)engagement in Aotearoa/New Zealand schools. Christchurch: Te Ora Hou.

Burt, M. (2002). Reasons to invest in adolescents. Journal of adolescent health, 136-152.

Child and Youth Mortality Review Committee. (2013). Special Report: Unintentional deaths from poisoning in young people. Wellington: Child and Youth Mortality Review Committee.

Clark, T. (2001). Enhancing access to health services for young people. New Ethicals Journal, 37-39.

Clark, T. C., Fleming, T., Bullen, P., Denny, S., Crengle, S., Dyson, B., et al. (2013). Youth'12 Overview: The health and wellbeing of New Zealand secondary school students in 2012. Auckland, New Zealand: The University of Auckland.

Clarke, A., Sorgenfrei, M., Mulcahy, J., Davie, P., Friedrich, C., & McBride, T. (2021). Adolescent mental health: A systematic review on the effectiveness of school-based interventions. Early Intervention Foundation.

Cognition Education. (2011). New Zealand health promoting schools national strategic framework: Section three: Literature review of international and national health promoting schools best practice and strategic frameworks. Cognition Education.

Cohen-Gilbertt, J. E., & Thomas, K. M. (2013). Inhibitory control during emotional distraction across adolescence and early adulthood. Child Development, 1954-1966.

Conrod, P., O'Leary-Barrett, M., Newton, N., Topper, L., Castellanos-Ryan, N., Mackie, C., et al. (2013). Effectiveness of a selective, personality-targeted prevention program for adolescent alcohol use and misuse: A cluster randomized controlled trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 334-342.

Cook, S., & White, J. (2016). Frequency of alcohol consumption among Year 10 students, 2012-14 [In Fact, Volume 5 Issue 10]. Wellington: Health Promotion Agency Research and Evaluation Unit.

Cook, S., & White, J. (2016). Parental knowledge about alcohol consumption, 2012-14 [In Fact, Volume 5 Issue 9]. Wellington: Health Promotion Agency Research and Evaluation Unit.

Cresswell, S., Liggins, S., & Dickinson, P. (2008). School-based education on alcohol and drugs: Systematic literature review on effectiveness of school-basd alcohol and drug education programmes. Auckland: Centre for Social and Health Outcomes.

Curtis, B., Lookatch, S., Ramo, D., McKay, J., Feinn, R., & Kranzier, H. (2018). Meta-analysis of the association of alcohol-related social media use with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in adolescents and young adults. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.13642.

Denny, S., Farrant, B., Cosgriff, J., Harte, M., Cameron, T., Johnson, R., et al. (2013). Forgone health care among secondary school students in New Zealand. J Prim Health Care, 11-18.

Department of Education, Science and Training. (2004). Principles for school drug education. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government.

Department of Education, Science and Training. (2006). Keeping in touch, the kit: Working with alcohol & other drug use, a resource for primary and secondary schools. Canberra: Australian Government.

Dickinson, P. (2001). Guidelines for mentally healthy schools. Auckland: Mental Health Foundation.

Education Review Office. (2013). Increasing educational achievement in secondary schools. Wellington: Education Review Office.

Education Review Office. (2014). Improving guidance and counselling for students in secondary schools. Wellington: Education Review Office.

Education Review Office. (2014). Towards equitable outcomes in secondary schools: Good practice. Wellington: Education Review Office.

Education Review Office. (2016). Wellbeing for success: A resource for schools. Wellington: Education Review Office.

Eisenberg, M., Toumbourou, J., Catalano, R., & Hemphill, S. (2014). Social norms in the development of adolescent substance use: A longitudinal analysis of the international youth development study. J Youth Adolescence, http://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-014-0111-1.

Ersche, K., & Sahakian, B. (2007). The neuropsychology of amphetamine and opiate dependence: Implications for treatment. Neuropsychol Rev., 317-336.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (Drug testing in schools). 2017. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Fealy, S., & Story, I. (2006). The mental health risk assessment and management process (RAMP) for schools: I. The model. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 1-11.

Feinstein, S. (2005). Another look at scared straight. The Journal of Correctional Education, 40-44.

Fergus, S., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2005). Adolescent resilience: A framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk. Annual Review of Public Health, 399-419.

Fergusson, D. M., Beautrais, A. L., & Horwood, L. J. (2003). Vulnerability and resiliency to suicideal behaviours in young people. Psychological Medicine, 61-73.

Fletcher, A., Bonell, C., & Hargreaves, J. (2008). School effects on young people's drug use: A systemic review of intervention and observational studies. Journal of Adolescent Health, 209-220.

Fleming, T., Lee, A., Moselen, E., Clark, T., & Dixon, R. (2014). Problem substance use among New Zealand secondary school students: Findings from the Youth'12 national youth health and wellbeing survey. Auckland: The University of Auckland.

Ford, C., Millstein, S., Halpern-Felsher, B., & Irwin, C. (1997). Influence of physician confidentiality assurances on adolescents' willingness to disclose information and seek further health care: A randomised controlled trial. JAMA, 1029-1034.

Gilligan, R. (2000). Adversity, resilience and young people: The protective value of positive school and spare time experiences. Children and Society, 37-47.

Griffin, K., & Botvin, G. (2010). Evidence-based interventions for preventing substance use disorders in adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am., 505-526.

Griswold, K., Aronoff, H., Kernan, J., & Kahn, L. (2008). Adolescent substance use and abuse: Recognition and management. Am Fam Physician, 331-336.

Hamilton, G., Cross, D., Lower, T., Resnicow, K., & Williams, P. (2003). School policy: What helps to reduce teenage smoking? Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 507-513.

Hetrick, S., Sharma, V., & Penno, J. (2021). School-based mental wellbeing supports: A literature review. Auckland: University of Auckland.

innovate change. (2017). Peer crowd co-design: Insights on young people and alcohol in South Auckland. Auckland: innovate change.

innovate change. (2017). Peer crowds service engagement: Insights on increasing engagement and support for young people living in South Auckland who are at most risk of alcohol related harm. Auckland: innovate change.

jack.org. (2017). Mental health advocacy training: Speaking points and main messages. jack.org.

Jackson, D. B., & Leal, W. E. (Drug and Alcohol Dependence). 2018. Energy drink consumption and the perceived risk and disapproval of drugs: Monitoring the future, 2010-2016, 24-31.

Jakob-Hoff, M., Stokes, K., Postlethwaite, J., Fa'alau, F., & Lennan, M. (2008). Evaluation of the stand up! programme. Auckland: Resonance Research.

Kinnect Group. (2013). Evaluation of counties manukau stand up! Auckland: Kinnect Group.

Kinniburgh, K. J., Blaustein, M., & Spinazzola, J. (2005). Attachment, self-regulation, and competency: A comprehensive intervention framework for children with complex trauma. Psychiatric Annals, 424-430.

Kroll, B. (2004). Living with an elephant: Growing up with parental substance misuse. Child and Family Social Work, 129-140.

Kupersmidt, J. B., Scull, T. M., & Austin, E. W. (2010). Media literacy education for elementary school substance use prevention: Study of media detective. Pediatrics, 525-531.

Leeson, H. (2017). Health promoting schools impact on targeted student outcomes: Analysis report. Monocle.

Lenroot, R. K., & Gledd, J. N. (2006). Brain development in children and adolescents: Insights from anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 718-729.

Leyton, M., & Stewart, S. (2014). Substance abuse in Canada: Childhood and adolescent pathways to substance use disorders. Ottawa, CN: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.

Lin, E.-Y., Caswell, S., You, R., & Huckle, T. (2012). Engagement with alcohol marketing and early brand allegiance in relation to early years of drinking. Addiction Research & Theory, 329-338.

Lyons, A., McCreanor, T., Hutton, F., Goodwin, I., Barnes, H., Griffin, C., et al. (2014). Flaunting it on facebook: Young adults, drinking cultures and the cult of celebrity. Wellington, NZ: Massey University School of Psychology.

MacDonald, J., Bourke, R., Berg, M., & Burgon, J. (2015). "It's, like, trying to make us better people": My FRIENDS youth final evaluation report. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

Matua Raki. (2017). Bridging the gap: Young people and substance use. Wellington: Matua Raki.

McCreary Centre Society. (2008). Evidence for healthy child and youth development: Interventions for core public health functions. Vancouver: McCreary Centre Society.

McCreary Centre Society. (2011). Promoting positive mental health among youth in transition: A literature review. Vancouver: McCreary Centre Society.

McDowall, S., & Hipkins, R. (2019). Curriculum integration: What is happening in New Zealand schools? Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

McGee, R., Williams, S., Poulton, R., & Moffitt, T. (2000). A longitudinal study of cannabis use and mental health from adolescence to early adulthood. Addiction, 491-503.

Milne, B., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., Poulton, R., Rutter, M., & Moffitt, T. (2009). Predictive value of family history of severity of illness: The case for depression, anxiety, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 738-747.

Ministries of Health, Education and Youth Development. (2014). Drug education matrix of learning outcomes for Levels 1-8 within the New Zealand health and physical education curriculum. Retrieved July 1, 2018, from http://health.tki.org.nz/Media/Files/Final-matrix

Ministry of Education. (2007). The New Zealand Curriculum: For english-medium teaching and learning in years 1-13. Wellington: Learning Media Limited.

Ministry of Education. (2012). Promoting student health and wellbeing: A guide to drug education in schools. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education. (2014). Alcohol and other drug education programmes: Guide for schools. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education. (2014). Restorative practice kete: Book one. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education. (2016). Guidelines for schools: Developing a policy on the sale, suplpy and consumption of alcohol. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education. (2019). Coherent pathways: Guidance document. Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Youth Affairs. (2002). Youth development strategy Aotearoa. Wellington: Ministry of Youth Affairs.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). The health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids: The current state of evidence and recommendations for research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

National Centre for Education and Training on Addiction. (2014). Alcohol education: What really works in schools? Adelaide: Flinders University.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (Second editionn 2003). Preventing drug use among children and adolescents: A research-based guide for parents, educators, and community leaders. Bethesda, Maryland: NiH.

Nelson, S., Gray, R., & Holland, K. (2015). Alcohol use by 15 to 17-year-olds: 2014/2015 ABAS. [In Fact]. Wellington: Health Promotion Agency Research and Evaluation Unit.

Nelson, S., Holland, K., & Gordon, C. (2016). Last drinking occasion among 15 to 17-year-olds: ABAS 2014/15 [In Fact, Volume 5, Issue 15]. Wellington: Health Promotion Agency Research and Evaluation Unit.

Nelson, S., Holland, K., & Gray, R. (2016). Attitudes towards alcohol amond 15 to 17-year-olds: ABAS 2015/15 [In Fact, Volume 5, Issue 13]. Wellington: Health Promotion Agency Research and Evaluation Unit.

New Zealand Drug Foundation. (2016). Preparing students to live in a world where alcohol and drugs exist. Wellington: NZ Drug Foundation.

New Zealand Drug Foundation. (2018). Making it easy for young New Zealanders to make changes and seek help for their alcohol use. An approach co-designed with young people. Wellington: NZ Drug Foundation.

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New Zealand Health Education Association. (2017). Alcohol and other drugs: A resource of teaching and learning activities for teachers of students in Years 9-11. NZHEA.

New Zealand Health Education Association. (2017). Consulting with the community: Best practice ideas and resources to support community consultation for health education. NZHEA.

Nobilo, H. (2017). An insight into adolescence, Brainwave Trust. Retrieved July 1, 2018, from http://www.brainwave.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/insight_to_adolescence.pdf

Odgers, C., Caspi, A., Nagin, D., Piquero, A., Slutske, W., Milne, B., et al. (2008). is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents? Psychol Sci., 1037-1044.

Patton, G., Bond, L., Butler, H., & Glover, S. (2003). Cahgning schools, changing health? Design and implementation of the gatehouse project. Journal of Adolescent Health, 231-239.

Peralta, L., Rowling, L., Samdal, O., Hipkins, R., & Dudley, D. (2017). Conceptualising a new approach to adolescent health literacy. Health Education Journal, 1-15.

Petrosino, A., Turpin-Petrosino, C., Hollis-Peel, M., & Lavenberg, J. (2012). Scared straight and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency: A systemic review. Campbell Systemic Reviews.

Pfeifer, J. H., Masten, C. L., Moore, W. E., Oswald, T. M., Mazziotta, J. C., Iacoboni, M., et al. (2011). Entering adolescence: Resistance to peer influence, risky behavior and neural changes in emotional reactivity. Neuron, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.019.

Primack, B. A., Fine, D., Yang, C. K., Wickett, D., & Zickmund, S. (2009). Adolescents' impressions of antismoking media literacy education: Qualitative results from a randomized controlled trial. Health Educ Res., 608-621.

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Rescue Agency. (2016). New Zealand teen & young adult alcohol abuse: Peer crowd discovery research report. Rescue Agency.

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Reyna, V., & Farley, F. (2006). Risk and rationality in adolescent decision-making: Implications for theory, practice, and public policy. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 1-44.

Roche, A., Alice, M., Fischer, J., & Kostadinov, V. (2015). Methamphetamine use in Australia. Adelaide: NCETA.

Roche, A., Pidd, K., Bywood, P., Duraisingam, V., Steenson, T., Freeman, T., et al. (2007). Drug testing in schools: Evidence, impacts and alternatives. Canberra: Australian National Council on Drugs.

Sanci, L., Toumbourou, J., San, V., Rowland, B., Hemphill, S., & Munro, G. (2002). Drug education approaches in secondary schools. Drug Info Clearinghouse.

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Sokratov, A., & O'Brien, J. M. (2014). Hikaka te Manawa: Making a difference for rangatahi. Wellington: Health and Disability Commisioner and Te Rau Matatini.

Somerville, L. (2013). Special issues on the teenage brain: Sensitivity to social evaluation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 121-127.

Springford, A., & Wright, S. (2016). The science of the adolescent brain and alcohol. AlcoholNZ, pp. 19-24.

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Vellemann, R., & Templeton, L. (2007). Understanding and modifying the impact of parents' substance misuse on children. Journal of Continuing Professional Development, 79-89.

Weinberger, D., Elvevag, B., & Giedd, J. (2005). The adolescent brain: A work in progress. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

Wells, J. E., Baxter, J., & Schaaf, D. (2007). Substance use disorders in Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Wellington: Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand.

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